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Alzheimers__The_Causes_And_Symptoms_Of_Alzheimer_s_Disease




Alzheimer's disease is mainly a brain disorder that involves the deterioration of mental functions. This illness mainly results from the gradual shrinking of brain tissues. This type of brain disorder is also known as dementia or diffuse -brain- atrophy.

� The Causes and Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease

The actual cause of the disease is still unknown but several factors are believed to be responsible in the development of the brain disorder. The lack of neurochemical factors in the nerve cells is also one of the probable causes of this disease.

The genetics and aging problems are considered to be the main causes of Alzheimer's disease. There are approximately nine out of ten thousand people affected with this malady and it is more often in women than in men. The disease primarily occurs in older people over the age of 65. However, there is very little chance for developing Alzheimer's disease through inherited mutated genes.

The most common symptoms of the Alzheimer's are as follows:

Impaired memory and thinking: The person feels difficulty in remembering very common things like his personal information, such as his place of birth or his occupation.

Difficulty in performing familiar tasks: The person with Alzheimer's disease feels to have difficulty in performing his daily tasks i.e. eating, dressing, showering etc. A person who prepares a meal may forget to serve it or even can't remember whether he has prepared it.

Problems with communication: The person gradually feels difficulty in recalling words or understanding the meanings of common words.

Disorientation and confusion: Patients may get lost in his own familiar place. Recognizing familiar places and situations becomes impossible for them. They even can't understand simple commands or follow directions.

Poor and decreased judgment: The person feels difficulty in taking decisions. As the people affected are always in their own state of mind so they may also leave the house on a cold day without any winter garment or they may even go to the market wearing pajamas.

Misplacing and messing up with things: The person affected with A.D. usually forgets where he has kept his daily used things, such as glasses, keys, etc. The person may also mess up with things, such as breaking glasses, damaging house hold goods, etc.

Changes in behavior and personality: Patients have the tendency to swing their moods rapidly. The patients may even feel dramatic changes in their personality and can become fearful, angry, quiet, etc.

Become passive and lose interest: People generally tend to become passive and show no interest in their usual activities. Extra encouragement is required to make them become active.

Problems with abstract thinking: The person with Alzheimer's disease loves to spend lots of time alone in some lonely place and shows less interest in interacting with other members of the family. They sometimes show symptoms of abstract thinking and also even feel difficulty in recognizing numbers or understanding what to do with them.

FOOD_POISONING


NG

Introduction:

Food poisoning is an acute gastroenteritis caused by the consumption of a food material or a drink which contains the pathogenic micro organism or their toxins or poisonous chemicals.Food poisoning is common in hostels,hotels,communal feedings, and festivel seasons.

A group of persons will be affected with same type of symptoms ,and they give a history of consumption of a common food before few hours.

Types of food poisoning

1) Bacterial food poisoning:

Here the micro organisms called bacteria are responsible.The food material may contain the pathogenic bacteriae or their toxin and will be ingested along with the food.

2) Non bacterial food poisoning:

Due to the presence of toxic chemicals like fertilizers,insectisides,heavy metals and ect.

Since bacterial food poisoning is common it is discussed here.

Bacterial food poisoning:

All bacteria are not harmful.There are some pathogenic bacteria which secrete toxins and cause clinical manifestations.These organisms enter the human body through food articles or drinks.

How food poisoning occures:

1) Presence of bacteria in the water.

2) The raw materials for the food may contain toxins.

3) Premises where the food is prepared may contain micro organisms or toxins.

4) Food handlers may have some infectious diseases.

5) Some animals like dogs,rats may contaminate the food.

6) If prepared food is kept in the room temperature for a long time and heated again can make a chance for food poisoning.

7) Purposely some body mixing toxins in the food.

Some common bacterial food poisonings.

1) Salmonella food poisoning:

There are three different varieties of salmonella bacteria.(salmonella typhimurium,salmonella cholera suis,salmonella enteritidis) These bacteria are present in milk, milk products and eggs. Symptoms of this food poisoning include nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Fever is also common.

2) Botulism:

This is the dangerous type of food poisoning caused by clostridium botulinum. The spores of these organisms are seen in the soil and enters the human body through pickles and canned fish ect.Compared to other food poisonings here vomiting and diarrhoea are rare Mainly the nervous system is affected.The symptoms starts with double vision,numbness with weakness.Later there will be paralysis with cardiac and respiratory failure ending in death.

3) Staphylococcal food poisoning:

It is caused by staphylo coccus aureus. These organisms usually cause skin troubles like boils and eruptions.It causes mastitis in cow.Through the milk and milk products it enders and causes gastroenteritis.There will be vomiting,abdominal cramps with diarrhoea.

4) Closteridium food poisoning:

This is caused by closteridium perfringens.They are present in stool,soil and water. They enter the body through,meat,meat dishes and egg ect.If food articles are cooked and kept in room temperature for a long time and heated again before eating can result this food poisoning.Symptoms include vomiting ,diarrhoea and abdominal cramps.

5) Bacillus cereus:

The spores of these organisms can survive cooking and causes enteritis. Diarrhoea and vomiting is common in this infection.

How to investigate food poisoning?

1) Examine each and every person affected.

2) Water sample should be tested.

3) Kitchen, store room and food samples should be examined.

4) The cook and food handlers should be questioned and examined.

5) Samples of vomitus and stool of all victims should be tested to identify the bacteria.

How to prevent food poisoning:-

1) Only purified water should be used.

2) Hygiene should be maintained by all persons keeping contact with food.

3) Workers should use masks, cap and gloves during cooking and serving.

4) Sick individuals should not come in contact with food materials.

5) Kitchen and premises should be neat and clean.

5) Vessels should be washed with soap and hot water.

6) Should not keep the prepared food for a long time in room temperature.

7) All food materials should be kept in closed containers.

8) Animals like dog, cat, rat ect should not come in contact with food materials.

9) Vegetables should be washed before cooking.

10) Meat should be fresh and should be purchased from recognised slaughter house.